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      Դ  |  1486   |  ڣ2019-12-04
      ѾΪҹóչĻˮӦҹƶĻͷڻĹ滮۵̬ͳˮ͸ĽʵͳͨϵͳķͿ֤ѰȽϺҪԭ¼ ΪʲôҪˮ һ˵Դ⵽ƻ̬ƽʧûʮʮϰʱԻָʱ޷ָ ʲôISO14000׼ ISO14000ϵб׼ɹʱ׼֯ĻίԱƶĻ׼ָ˼ǡȫԤȾĽǻ˼·뷽ĴISO14000зdzϸı׼ӹԭϿʼƷÿ͹ھӦĺ˲׼ƶϸԤȾеIJͱ֤ȾʵЧˮISO14000ϵб׼еһĿǰISO14000ϵб׼ڹijЩкʹҵʼԵִ ISO14000֤ΪгϿɵġɫա˭֤ͨɾͻˡ֤ͨҷ׷ûл֤ƷͲƷڽʱܵͼ۸ϵг𲽽ӹISO14000֤ڹеҵȫƹִͬISO9000(׼)һ ӻ׼ĽǶȳDzҪŬȾԴĩ˵ķˮʵпѧĻ֤ˮŷӦûץȾԴǰ˵ԤȾȾ ʵʩѧĻ ѾΪҹóչĻˮӦҹƶĻͷڻĹ滮۵̬ͳˮ͸ĽʵͳͨϵͳķͿ֤ѰȽϺҪԭ¼㣺 (1)̭IJƷ һЩͳͲֵˮѶȼƷӦ¾øֵ߲ߵIJƷûijƷ󻹵ֲÿڷˮɱIJƷӦ¾ֹͣȾIJƷ (2)ǿȾ ҵҲǷȾһҪ豸ð©̰ɵ¹ʻƷϵȵµĴŨȷˮIJôˮϴ豸ɷˮȴˮˮδǷӷˮˮͷˮѶ (3)ԵСˮ ԹȽϼеĵطá˭Ⱦ˭ԭӦüǿҵϵͳȾԲбҪͿɽķˮдͳһˮʵС˭Ⱦ˭ǮΪڲƷIJͬˮˮҲһеĹķˮԵеĹķˮȴǼԵһԼкҩĴеĹųĸηֵCODķˮеĹķˮȴǸŨオĻѶȺܴķˮһˮĸԼٷˮĴѶҿߴЧ (4)ˮѭ Ϊ˼ٷˮˮӦڷˮԴͷ϶ԿˮѭظˮѭˮڹijЩȽҵˮѭѾﵽ96%Ϻҵˮѭʻͣ20-30%ĽϵˮƽкܴDZھˮѭʲԼỷȾһܼˮIJһ̶ϿԻŵˮԴڷˮʱҲӦþǴˮѭʹ (5)úۺ ˮеȾнˮеԭƷƷͷӦ(ܼ)رǾϸһЩѧӦʮְȫƷķҲʮֳڷˮڷӦĸҺгһŷЩȾͻȾΣԻûۺԱΪΪԷηȡۺͿԽʡˮķ ʲôǡ110 ԵǰִͻȺͶ߲Ӧ״Ϻпͨ˻Ӧ62863110νġ110绰뽫Ϊ63110(ɫ110г)ȫϵͳ׸110ŻȵļǿȫؽȺлӦ ӦߵְΧǣ֯ȫзΧڷشȾ¹۵λȾǷŷŵľٱ͵ֱŵʹɻĿ᲻ȶ¼ЭйزŴܶԻӰش¼赽ֳĻȾӦ߿24СʱΧڵȫȺڵͶ Ⱦŷŵλ˵110ĿͨѹǶֻȾĹܾסִȺڵļල ļ ˮеȾչ̵IJ˸ĸʵٷˮΣĸʩͨռ豸ĸĸ԰ѷˮ֮ȿԭϵֿɼٷˮĴⷽ湤ӦչʦʦͬӦʶֻǻʦĹҪȾԴͷпѷˮڹƷʱҪǽܷĻȾѡϳ·ʱ޹ٹҪѡԭߵ·вûѽʻжкԭϼܼǿܼƷĻռۺùİ취м֣ (1)¹¼· ¹¼·ȿɶϱһʵӦȾϴֳȵԭϽԭϵԼˮĿɴ ڻʱȡµ·ˮƽҲԽˮҩԭҺеƱвԷˮˮϴҽѴֲÿ߻¼нзӦˮˮҲȾҲȽ׽ (2)ԭ dzõķ޶Ͷԭϴ߶綾ԭɽʴѽʵҪܵزúŷű׼й涨ֹرһЩҪϸͿԼˮĸڶԷˮеİŨнϸҪҪоðˮҺǰڵڷˮpHʱеĴðˮˮеİͻ󳬱Ҳ˷ˮѶͬԭӦظȴܼ ѡܼʱϵҪ迼ܼɽԼ䶾 (3)ѡµĺȾ ַڴ»ѧļԱ˵Ǵ֮صлϳɹҵüˮϡͷӦϵķ(ˮ)ʹӦӷӦлܼˮĸҺˮϴлܼ(״Ҵˮܼ)ѻˮȾϡǰ󷨻մ󲿷ܼˮϡˮлĺ½ ΪʹõIJƷ֤ϺõӦмﳣϴԳȥмдϴӲǷԷˮȾ̶൱Ӱµĺʹϴӷˮȫڹղʵˮеηֺ̫߻΢ֳӰЧҲԲµĺˮеһѵijȱڼ״ܼƷӦƱԭȵĺˮϴȥӦеNaClηòĽǷˮˮˮеηֺºóĽ˺IJȽӦ(л)еNaCl˵ˮϴӲĽIJղԼٷˮˮ50%ҿԻշˮηֵ97.4%ˮл58.7%ˮオܵõ˺ܴĸ (4)ǿܼչ ڴԭܼԭеʹñ൱ߵ˵ˮелɻܼӺܼĻչǷȾȾҪʩҲǽЧҪ;л;õ˫ЧϺijصҩл(COD)ŷΪ8ǵȾóĻȴܼĻչܼͬĸҺˮԻˮелŷ8ֽ3ܼ泬˷ˮվз ΪʲôʹCODBODȾָ ˮлʮʮϰлʵķˮҲܾԷˮелһһжԶķȺʱֺҩƷôֻܲһȾָʾˮелʼǵѧ߾оелʶжԣһٶ̼Ǿлܹѧ΢ǵֱ̼γ޶޺Ķ̼ˮˮелʲڻѧлжҪˮелĵҲ֮dzϵǻѧǽˮûѧҩʱĵΪѧCODˮ΢ĵΪBODCODBODܹۺԵطӳˮлʵҷȽϼ˱㷺Ӧڷˮͻ ʵCODǵʾˮелʵܱʾˮолԭʵ޻磺ȸӵƩ署̿سˮекͳûȫȥĻˮӵĴˮCODܻᳬ ʲôCODѧ ѧ(COD)ָˮܱڱѧʱҪĺ/ΪλĿǰⶨˮлﺬһõֶCODгõи(̷CODMn)ظ(CODCr)ڳظطˮǿȷڻ¶лʵ߻ʱʹлߵ85-95%ˮкнϸŨȵȸӦṯεԼٶCODIJⶨ ʲôBOD5 ҲԱˮлȾij̶õΪ5BOD5ʾʾˮ΢½5Ҫǽʹ5 CODBOD5֮ʲôϵ елǿԱ(ǺҴ)елֱֻܲ(״)елDzܱĶһж(ӷijЩԼ)ǿ԰ˮелֳ2лͲл ͨΪCODϿɱʾˮеелBODΪˮпオлCODBODIJֵԱʾˮﲻɽⲿֵл ʲôB/CB/Cʾʲô B/CBOD5CODֵдñֵԱʾˮĿCODNBʾCODеIJオⲿˮвΪ΢オлռıCODNB/CODʾBOD5/CODCODNB/COD֮±ʾĹϵ BOD5/COD0.45ʱオлռȫл20%BOD5/COD0.2ʱオлռȫл60% BOD5/CODֵΪлオԵָB/CڻŷdzҪʵõ ʲôPH pHʵˮҺȵһֱʾƽʱǾϰðٷŨʾˮҺ1%Һ1%ļҺǵˮҺȺССʱðٷŨʾ̫鷳ʱpHʾpHӦ÷Χ0-14֮pH=7ʱˮpH7ʱˮʼpHˮļ е벻ˮpHֵķΧǷdzС˹һֽˮpHֵϸع涨6-9֮ ˮpHֵļ⾭ʹpHֽҲⶨpHⶨ Ϊʲôʹú/mg/LŨȵλ һ˵ˮелʺ޻ʵĺǺССðٷŨȻŨʾ̫鷳̫ƩһַˮֻмʮٿǧȾ䵥λΪ/(g/T)罫ֻΪ/(mg/L)ʱɲο±㣺ˮԤԤҪﵽļĿ ǰĴһ㶼ϰߵؽԤñȽϵбȽȶһĹҵˮˮҲΪҪĴֶˮкijЩ΢жл˷ˮڽ֮ǰбҪԤĿǽˮж΢жʾܵȥԱ֤е΢ ԤĿжһǽˮж΢жõʾܵȥתΪ΢޺Ա֤е΢ԤCODԼصи Ԥ̿΢Fe2+/Fe3+ԭγɵ΢С̿ԭԭӦĽɽˮежкƻȥкͳлͨڼγɵĻˮелCOD֤ϵͳ ˮˮʲôõ ˮˮصǻ㼯;ˮˮˮ ˮųķˮˮˮһ˵Dzʱзˮʱûзˮһ֮ڻ֮䶼кܴı仯رǾϸҵķˮǷˮŨˮȾˮˮˮ仯ֱܴ仯Էˮʩ豸ЧǺܲк˷ˮڽҪˮϵͳǰҪһһݻķˮˮˮʹʾԱ֤ˮ豸ʩ ΪʲôˮеĽȻ ˮش1׳ﶼȻĵȷȥ С1΢С޷Ȼ罺10-410-6mmС΢ˮзdzȶijٶȼ1mʱ200ԭж(1)һ˵ӶиͬԭӶֹ΢ĽӴܱ˴ճˮ(2)ӱ滹һӽذΧˮҲ谭͸΢֮ĽӴܱ˴ճˮ ʹ ҪʹҪʹ໥Ӵʹ֮ΪĿ༴ʹش1 õķкܶϳõļУ۷ͻ ʲô ڷˮͶӴӵĻҩڽ֮Ĵ֮ľųӶʹ΢۽ͨͶӵʵķʹý΢໥۽Ĺ̳ΪõۼȻ ʲô ڷˮм߷ӻҩ߷ӻҩܽγɸ߷Ӿۺָ߾Ľṹͽṹߵһһ΢Сһһ΢СԶ֮ճŵʹ΢𽥱γɴ(׳Ʒ)ٿõۼо۱ϩ(PAM)(PE) ˮΪʲôҪþԤ ڻγкܺõˮлʵʵݱˮþȥˮCOD10%-20%ԴؼصиڴˮĴŷþлԤԽˮж΢жõ΢ȥԱ֤е΢ҩļ۸˵Ƚϱ(25-300Ԫ/)˴ɱȽϵȽʺϹշˮԤ ʴԺǿ˴豸Ӧ÷ ʲôл һʹõĹΪʵ򹤳ϱӦˮͶҩ֮ľųȻͶӾ۱ϩ(PAM)ʹ΢𽥱γۿɼķ ʲô öԹ(̿)()ˮежкڹıϻ΢ﵽˮʵĿִΪĶDzԹҲܽЧʸˮˮʺ˳ΪˮȴҲԪЧ(PACTеһ) ʲô̿ ֳ̿̿΢ⷨ̿ڵⷨǽˮһӦʽ̿ΪԤжкŨCODˮһֶصЧ̿ĴĿǰδȫڱȽͬһֽǣ֮̿γ΢Ӧл΢±ԭ̿ˮʯһʯкɵFe(OH)2״лкǿ̿ۺӦĻԭ̿ĵ绯ѧʺӵʵĹͬʹ̿кܺõĴЧ ̿ȱǣ (1)мԽгڽݺڰɿɶγɹʹЧ (2)ܳϴӼкͺ϶ ̿ˮΪʲôҪʯҷ۽кʹ ڳpHΪ2ˮ̿ΪˮpHֵ25-6ô̿ˮΪʲôҪʯҷ۽кʹкʹʱDzǿټһЩʯҷ ̿ˮкдȥĻӰ΢ֳDZҪʯҽˮpHֵ5-6ٵ9ʹˮԵתɲԵȻͨķʹdzԱ֤صķˮв кʹʱDzǿټʯҷǿڻһԱʵȡͬ̿ˮ(pH2)̿ˮ(pH5-6)ֱڶձȻֱؼʯҷ۽кͻձеķˮpHֵ9ʱǿԷֶձͶӵʯҷ۵һΪкҩתɵк͹תʱõʯҷһҲٵ̿ˮкʹʱDzټʯҷ۵ 㻯ѧIJ ͨѧӦ(磺к)ﻯ(磺ҩ)ϰ϶Ϊѧ̿ˮкͻγɵҪIJͨͶӵʯҷ۵Ҳþйһ˵̿ˮpH2кͻÿַˮĻѧ(ˮ80%)50 ʲôзˮ ˮﻯѧǷˮϵͳҪĹ֮һ΢̽ˮеĿԵлPֲԵлЧȥʹˮõʵǶǺİȻˮдһʳССϺϺ׳СС΢΢ˮûʳȻҪȻĺŴл΢ҹҹؽел(繤ҵˮũҩȵл)ԭתΪ޻û΢ĴΧĺ򼸸һͻΪֻ΢̫΢С̫ɢǵۿˮ˹¶һ̵ǿǽԼ΢ȫһһdzʺ΢ﷱֳĻ(¶pHֵ׵Ӫ)ʹ΢ֳֽлٶȺЧȻڱˮʹˮел΢еõʹˮõʹܺĵҩЧõ͵ص ΢νˮелȾֽȥ ڷˮд̼ˮ֬ʵлЩл΢ʳһֽϳΪϸ(ϴл)һֽΪˮ̼(ֽл)ڴ˹зˮелȾﱻ΢オȥ ΢Щй ΢ҪӪҪʵĻ¶pHֵܽ͸ѹȲӰ΢ ΢ʲô¶ȷΧֳ ڷˮﴦ΢˵¶ȷΧһΪ16-30¶37-43¶ȵ10ʱ΢ォ ˵¶ȷΧ¶ÿ10΢ĴлʻӦCODȥҲ10%෴¶ÿ10CODȥʻή10%ڶʱCODȥʻԵ ΢˵PHӦʲôΧ ΢ʴлpHֵйϵ΢pHӦΧ4.5-9˵pHֵķΧ6.5-7.5pH6.5ʱʼϸpH4.5ʱڽռȫӰijpH9ʱ΢ĴлٶȽܵ谭 ͬ΢pHֵӦΧҪDzһںﴦpH6.5-8.5֮仯ﴦ΢pHҪȽϸpHӦ6.7-7.4֮ ʲôܽܽ΢Ĺϵ ܽˮеܽˮе΢ܽͬ΢ܽҪDzһ΢Ҫܽһ˵ܽӦά3mg/LΪͲӦ2mg/L΢ҪܽķΧ0.2-2.0mg/L֮΢ҪܽķΧ0.2mg/L ΪʲôŨȵĺηˮ΢Ӱ һ͸ѹʵ飺һŰ͸ĤֲͬŨȵҺŨҺˮӾͻ͸͸ĤŨҺŨҺˮҲ͸͸ĤŨҺҪʸŨҺһҺҺĸ߲㹻ֹˮѹʱ͸ͻֹͣʱҺĸ߲ѹ͸ѹһ˵ηŨԽ͸ѹԽ ΢ˮҺе͸ѹʵƵ΢ĵλṹϸϸ൱ڰ͸ĤŨСڵ2000mg/Lʱϸڿɳܵ͸ѹΪ0.5-1.0ѹʹϸںϸĤһļԺ͵ϸڿɳܵ͸ѹҲ5-6ѹˮҺеŨ5000mg/Lʱ͸ѹԼ10-30ѹ͸ѹ΢ڵˮӻ͸Һϸʧˮʱڷ΢ճʳ(Ȼ)߲˺ʳ̾ݱˮеŨȴ2000mg/Lʱ΢ĻԽֹܵCODȥʻ½ˮеŨȴ8000mg/Lʱˮ淺ĭ΢ ѱ΢ӦڸŨȵˮֳĿǰѾѱܹӦ10000mg/LӻŨȵ΢͸ѹԭѾӦڸŨȵˮֳ΢ϸҺĺŨǺܸߵһˮеηŨȽϵͻܵʱˮеˮӻ΢ʹ΢ϸѱӦڸŨȵˮֳ΢ˮеηŨҪʼձ൱ߵˮƽܺߺ΢ォ к עⲻҪ˸ɾ뱣һѡȡֱֹʽ ΢ҪIJͬɷΪȱȱֿɷΪں΢ڴĴֳͷˮел΢ֻҪֳԷˮелʽн⴦ˮ̫΢ﷴôӶӰлʵĴЧ ΢ӦCODŨȽϸߵķˮˮCODŨȿߵ2000mg/LCODȥһ50-80%΢ֻӦCODŨȽϵ͵ķˮˮCODŨһ1000-1500mg/LCODȥһ50-80%ͺʱ䶼̫һ㶼12-24Сʱüͺ֮IJ֮ͬͺCODŨȽϸߵķˮȽмüصĴˮΪصĽˮϴԼصݻȽʡ˻Ͷּճз ԭһIJ֮ͬǣ΢ﷱֳлʽ⴦ĹвҪκ΢ӦCODŨȵķˮ(4000-10000mg/L)ȱʱܳˮڵͣʱһҪ40Сʱ ﴦڷˮЩӦ ﴦڷˮӦõ㷺ʵõļжࣺһ෨һĤ ෨״Ⱥлýкķˮʽ΢ֳпγɱϴľԴˮĽ״ܽȾЩϸIJЩȫųCO2H2O෨Ũһ4g/L Ĥ΢︽ϵıγɽĤĤһɵ״ṹ΢׽϶ܴкǿ΢һЩлֽڴˮͿĽʹĤˮϽӴˮелȾܽΪĤĤϵ΢ﲻϷֽЩлֽлʵͬʱĤҲ³´л˥ϵĤˮﴦʩдڳˮĤŨһ6-8g/L ΪŨߴЧԽ෨ĤڻּйĤ΢΢ﷴӦΪʽﷴӦкܸߵŨһ14g/L Ĥͻ෨Щ֮ͬ Ĥͻ෨IJͬӦʽϿҪǰߵ΢ﲻҪߵ΢ǹ̶ϵȻǴˮˮʵĻһߵ඼ǺҲһĤе΢ǹ̶ϵγɱȽȶ̬ϵͳ෨е΢ĤʣȻ෨ҪϺ·ҩҵ޹˾ĽӴزĤSBRزû෨ ʲôл ΢ǶеɸָԵ΢ɵһȺ΢¹۲Կж΢---ϸùԭͺ(ֳ׳)ǹһʳϸùֽܷ⸴ӵлԭϸùΪʳֱҲֱϸֳ΢нл״ͽ ΢֮һЩ޻ʺڻϲٱオл(΢Ĵл)ĺˮһ98-99%󷯻һкܴı˾кǿֽл ۻ෨ĤеĻ ෨ĤĻбDzһ ĤҪ΢ֱӹ۲ ڻ෨ۻ۳ֱ΢۲õָ껹УҺ(MLSS)Һӷ(MLVSS)(SV)ָ(SVI) һ΢Ч ΢ͺ(ֳ߳)ij΢Ⱥ̬ϵͳȽȶʱЧͺñܾ񵽴ĺССϺõһ ʲôлҺ壨MLSS Һ(MLSS)ҪΪŨָλػҺλΪ/Ũл޻һ˵SBRMLSSֵ2000-4000mg/LΪ ʲôлҺӷ壨MLVSS Һӷ(MLVSS)ָλػҺпɻӷʵλҲǺ/е޻ܽȷеش΢ ȣSV (SV)ָڻҺ100Ͳֹ30ӺҺ֮(%)ʱҲSV30ʾһ˵ڵSV20-40%֮ȲⶨȽϼSVҪָ֮һڿʣŷźͼʱʱ͵쳣ȻŨҲйϵ ָSVI עⲻҪ˸ɾ뱣һѡȡֱֹʽ ָ(SVI)ȫݻָ1˸ʪ̬ʱռĺ㹫ʽΪ SVI=SV*10/MLSS SVI޳ŨصӰܷӳԺͳһΪ 60 100 200 SVI>300ʱ ܽDOʾʲô ܽ(DO)ʾˮܽλmg/LʾͬʽܽҪҲͬڼˮеܽһ0.2-2.0mg/L֮SBRˮеܽһ2.0-8.0mg/L֮زʱҪСʱҪSBRزʱʱҪöͳöõǽӴܽ2.0-4.0mg/L ˮܽĺЩй ˮܽŨȿHenryʾﵽܽƽʱC=KH*P УCΪܽƽʱˮܽPΪķѹKHΪHenryϵ¶йŬʹܽӽƽͬʱ໹ˮе˷ˮʵܽˮЧˮ(Ӱѹ)Ũζȵй ΢˭ṩ ΢Ҫ޴ķṩ ΪʲôˮеӪ ȥȾķҪ΢³´л΢ϸϳɵ̾Ҫ㹻Ӫ(΢Ԫ)ڻˮ˵Ʒĵһ˷ˮˮʵɵijɷҲΪһȱ΢ҪӪ署***˾ˮֻ̼͵ûַˮ޷΢³´лҪ˱ӷˮ΢³´лĹٽ΢ϸĺϳڳ׷۵ͬʱҪ㹻άһ ˮ΢ĸӪԪ֮ı ΢ֲһҲҪҪӪʲֳܹ΢ҪӪҪָ̼(C)(N)(P)ˮҪӪԪصɱһҪںһΪC:N:P=100:5:1() Ϊʲôʣ е΢ﲻϵŷˮелĵлһлʱṩ΢һл΢ԺϳµϸӶʹ΢ﷱֳ΢³´лͬʱһϵ΢ʲʣ ʣIJ ΢³´лл(BOD)΢úϳµϸ˵΢ʣIJ䱻ֽ˵BODй֮й ʱһ㶼ÿһBOD50.6-0.8ʣ(100%)ɺˮΪ80%ĸΪ3-4 ʲô̿PACT ЩオҩˮˮеCODҪﵽһŷű׼(100mg/L)DZȽѵˮӦٲÿ̿Ա֤ˮDzȱٵ̿һ㼴ɱ̫ԭǿ̿CODĶ̬10%(ٷֱ)һֻֻ̿ˮеCOD100ڿ̿ɱ˿̿ӦƹڹڻձôDzǿԿһµļּԴȵ߻̿Ķ̬ЧؽͷˮĴɱ ɶŰ˾ȿ̿(PowderedActivatedCarbonTreatmentProcess)¼Ĵ֮һ̿ơPACTPACSBRΪзչǰ;͵ķˮˮ()Ͷӷĩ̿ĺ̿һڻŨųʣˮװ฽ڷĩ̿ıڷĩ̿޴ıȱǿرڻĩ֮̿ܽͽŨ˺ܴȵӶҲCODĽȥһ˵PACTϵͳ̿CODĶ̬100-350%(ٷֱ)һĩ̿ȥ1.0-3.5CODPACTܴԽжклȾ
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